Bullying at school (Bullying) observed in modern societies, more and more often and to an alarming degree, recent years. Greece, like many other countries, experiences a transitional period during which changes in ideological systems occur, due to social and economic changes as well as in institutions ( family, movement of populations etc.).
The problem of school bullying (Bullying), is the most common form of aggressive behavior with serious effects on both the psycho-emotional development of children, as well as in the learning process (Smith et al., 2002).
How we perceive it
It is observed when "a student submits repeatedly and over time, to negative energies by one or more students "and there is a" power imbalance "(Olweus,1986).
The causal factors that can lead to the phenomenon are primarily related to family and school. To consider an act as a Bullying phenomenon, it must: "There must be an intention, the phenomenon is repeated, the child in whom the negative acts are exercised, he can not defend himself and of course these actions result in bodily harm or emotional problems for the victim. " (Farrington &Ttofi, 2009).
Bullying can have lifelong consequences for both victims and observers. Young people and children involved in these activities, either as victims or as perpetrators face particular difficulties at school and are likely to develop heaps of psychological and psychosomatic problems.
What determines the severity of the effects of bullying
• its forms (direct or indirect),
• its duration (short-term or long-term),
The period of occurrence of the effects and
• the role of children in the phenomenon( perpetrator, victim, observer).
School bullying due to the seriousness of its incidents, in some extreme cases, manifested by homicide or suicide (Bauman & DelRio, 2005).
It is also a "group phenomenon", since it does not only concern the "victim" and the "perpetrator", but also all those who happen to be present in these incidents who can be not only students, but also adults like the parents, teachers and school staff, such as school traffic wardens, employees in the canteen etc..
The signs that will worry parents
It should be noted that some forms of school bullying, they are difficult to distinguish like that of social / relational exclusion, which is a very skillful way of bullying and is often not perceived by those around. In addition, the victims hide it from them parents their.
For this reason, parents should be aware of the indications that the child is the victim of some aggressive behavior.. Some of them are if the child:
• often complains that he feels sick or has nightmares.
• makes unjustified absences
• has an unexpected drop in school performance
• is late for school or late for home
• his clothes are often torn
• changes roads when he goes or as he returns from school
• often loses money or things
• there are frequent mood swings that persist
• has marks or bruises or some signs of attack and avoids saying how they happened.
The role of the school
The interest is also focused on the school because there it is possible to implement programs for prevention and addressing the problem. Working with teaching staff is important, because staff often tolerate or underestimate bullying, so the main goal is to change the attitudes and perceptions of teachers and to adopt a more positive attitude towards dealing with bullying (Clarke & Acid, 1997).
It is also very important for teachers to be able to identify and distinguish forms of bullying. (physical or verbal violence) and indirect bullying (social isolation and exclusion from the group), in order to take appropriate action (Kingdom, 2005)
The role of the health visitor
It is essential for the completion of the interdisciplinary team in Health Education programs, at school and in the community. The Health Visitor, based on public health principles, is able to identify early on those health issues that may develop into problems or risks if not addressed in a timely manner ( Department of Health, 2011).
Holding a multifaceted role in the PHC (Baldwin,2012) is the professional who deals with all age groups in the family and the community in the process of promoting their health, both physical and mental in the context of ensuring public health and reducing health inequalities. (Hemingway, 2012; Cowley, 2010a; Sakellari, 2012).
Health Education Actions
Health education actions are divided into two levels: a) the individual - family level, which includes activities such as home visits, the consulting etc. and b) the Group or community level, which includes health education programs, support groups etc.. ( Λάγιου & Stoikidou, 2008b).
The implementation of health education programs, for the prevention and treatment of school delinquency and bullying is necessary and should be addressed to the groups of parents and teachers and not only to students.
For the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs, so that there is a correct and complete provision of knowledge, programs should not be occasional, but to last 1-2 years and be addressed at various levels: community, family, school, order, peer group.